ALERT: Your health is top priority. We’re committed to providing reliable COVID-19 resources to keep you informed and safe.


Depression, also known as clinical depression or major depressive disorder, is a mood disorder that causes intense sadness lasting at least two weeks or more. It can interfere with a person’s ability to function and perform daily tasks. Treatment options include psychotherapy, medication and brain stimulation therapy.

Depression is a common disorder. About 17.7 million American adults had at least one major depressive episode in 2018, according to the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, or SAMHSA.

It affects 264 million people and is a leading cause of disability worldwide, according to the World Health Organization.

Clinical depression is more than just being sad about the death of a loved one, being in a bad mood or being upset about a lost relationship. If left untreated it can cause people to lose sleep, stop eating or lose their jobs.

For people with chronic diseases, such as diabetes, depression can affect their ability to care for themselves. For example, people with diabetes are up to 3 times more likely to have depression than people without diabetes, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

About 17.7 million Americans had at least one major depressive episode in 2018.

Everyone can suffer from depression, but different groups such as young people, women and LGBTQ+ individuals may have a higher risk for depression.

Fortunately, there are several treatment options and resources available. With these treatments and a good social support system, people diagnosed with depression can improve their health and successfully control their symptoms.

Depression Statistics
National Institute of Mental Health
Anxiety and Depression Association of America
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration

What Are the Symptoms?

Each person experiences different symptoms of depression. The disorder causes a mix of mental and physical symptoms. The length of time these symptoms last varies depending on the person. The type of depression a person has can also affect the symptoms and severity.

Clinical depression symptoms can affect people at any age, but the average age of onset is 32 and a half years old, according to the Anxiety and Depression Association of America.

Other medical conditions may have similar symptoms to depression. These include thyroid problems, vitamin deficiencies and brain tumors. It’s important to talk to a health care provider to rule out these conditions.

If a person suffers from several of these symptoms nearly every day for at least two weeks, they may have depression and should seek help from a health care provider.

Symptoms of Depression

What Are the Major Types?

Major depressive disorder is the primary type of depression, but there are a few subtypes, according to the National Institutes of Mental Health.

Each type of depression may manifest symptoms differently. The distinguishing factor between these types is timing and consistency of symptoms. The type of depression someone has affects the type of treatment a health care provider may recommend.

The most common include persistent depressive disorder, postpartum depression, psychotic depression, seasonal affective disorder and bipolar disorder.

Persistent Depressive Disorder (Dysthymia)

Persistent depressive disorder manifests the same symptoms of major depressive disorder, but the symptoms last for least two years or more.

People with major depressive disorder may cycle in and out of depression, but people with dysthymia suffer with persistent symptoms for years. Dysthymia episodes may be less severe, but they are longer lasting.

Persistent depressive disorder starting before age 21 is considered early onset. After 21, it is late onset.

Postpartum Depression

Many women suffer mild anxiety and depression within two weeks of giving birth. But women who have postpartum depression experience longer-lasting symptoms of major depressive disorder, both during and up to a year after pregnancy.

This makes it difficult for a mother to take care of her baby. In addition to the symptoms of clinical depression, postpartum can make it difficult for mothers to bond with their babies and make them think about hurting themselves and their babies.

The condition occurs in about 15 percent of births, according to the National Institute for Mental Health. It usually affects mothers between a week and month after delivery, but can begin anytime shortly before or after childbirth.

Postpartum depression affects about 15 percent of births.

Psychotic Depression

People with psychotic depression experience symptoms of major depressive disorder but also have symptoms of psychosis such as delusions or hallucinations. Psychotic depression occurs in about 14 to 20 percent of people with major depressive disorder.

These people may have delusions such as believing they are poor, are guilty or have a serious illness like cancer. Hallucinations may manifest as voices telling them they are worthless or that they should harm themselves.

Psychotic depression is serious and requires immediate medical treatment because the risk for suicide is higher in people with this condition, according to the National Library of Medicine.

Approximately 20 percent of people with psychotic depression attempt suicide during an episode, according to Psychiatric Times.

Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD)

Seasonal affective disorder manifests as depression that occurs when there is less sunlight in the winter months. Symptoms typically go away in spring and summer. Between 5 and 10 percent of Americans experience SAD, according to Time magazine.

To be diagnosed with SAD, people have to have depression that coincides with the seasons for at least two years. In addition to the typical symptoms of depression, people with SAD may suffer from weight gain, overeating and cravings for carbohydrates during the winter months.

Bipolar Disorder

Bipolar disorder was once called manic-depressive illness or manic depression. People with bipolar disorder can experience extreme highs and lows in mood. This disorder is different from depression, but people with this condition can experience lows that have symptoms of major depression.

About 2.8 percent of U.S. adults experience bipolar disorder, and the average age of onset is 25, according to National Alliance on Mental Illness.

What Causes Depression?

Research suggests that a combination of biological, environmental, genetic and psychological factors play a role in causing depression. For example, factors such as a crisis, family history or substance abuse may trigger a major depressive episode. But some people may simply develop it with no apparent trigger.

Risk factors and causes of depression include:
  • Stress
  • Trauma
  • Genetics
  • Life circumstances – relationship changes, financial standing, etc.
  • Medical conditions – chronic pain, sleep disturbances
  • Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder – people with ADHD may also have depression
  • Gender – women are more prone to depression than men
  • Family history of depression
  • Grief and loss
  • Substance abuse
  • Brain changes
  • Poor diet
  • Anxiety – people with anxiety may also suffer depression

How Does Clinical Depression Affect Different People?

Subsets of the population deal with depression differently and may have unique risks. Each group may require different types of therapy to help them cope.

Young Adults

Depression among young adults is on the rise. About 3.2 million young people ages 12 to 17 had at least one major depressive episode in 2017, according to the National Institutes of Mental Health.

Symptoms of depression in young people may differ from those in adults. For example, young people may experience moodiness, isolate themselves from adult family members and sleep at odd times of day. But they may still want to be with peers.

About 3.2 million young people ages 12 to 17 had at least one major depressive episode in 2017.

Symptoms also vary by gender. Girls are more likely to suffer from guilt, sadness, worthlessness and low energy. Boys are more likely to suffer from suicidal thoughts and irritability.

One study by Jean M. Twenge and colleagues analyzed data from 2005 to 2017 and found that rates of major depressive episodes had increased by 52 percent during that time among adolescents ages 12 to 17.

The authors theorized that cultural trends such as the “the rise of electronic communication and digital media and declines in sleep duration, may have had a larger impact on younger people.”

Feeling Hopeless? Get Help Now.
National Suicide Hotline
Crisis Textline
Text “HELLO” to 741741

Men and Women

Men and women deal with depression differently, and more women than men suffer from depression. In fact, women are twice as likely to suffer from depression as men, according to the CDC.

Symptoms also manifest differently in women and men because of differences in hormone and gene development in the womb. Women tend to be better able to describe when they are depressed, so depression may not be diagnosed in men until later.

Differences between men and women:
  • Because of interactions between female hormones, women experience prolonged stress in response to difficult life events
  • Men are more likely to commit suicide
  • Substance abuse is more common in men with depression
  • The illness is missed more frequently in men
  • Women are more likely to have negative self-talk, to cry for no reason or blame themselves

About 2 to 5 percent of women may also suffer from premenstrual dysphoric disorder, or PMDD. PMDD is a severe form of premenstrual syndrome that can cause symptoms of depression. Some women require medication to treat it.

LGBTQ+ Individuals

Between 30 and 60 percent of LGBTQ+ individuals may suffer from depression and anxiety in their lives, according to Anxiety and Depression Association of America. Members of this community are up to 2.5 times more likely to suffer from mental illness than straight and gender-conforming individuals.

For example, according to the CDC’s Youth Risk Behavior Survey 2007 to 2017, 63 percent of lesbian, gay, bisexual and queer youth reported persistent feelings of sadness or hopelessness. About 47 percent seriously considered attempting suicide.

LGBTQ+ Depression and Suicide Resources
  • The Trevor Project for LGBTQ+ youth in crisis
  • Trained counselors are available 24/7 on the TrevorLifeline at 1-866-488-7386. The website also offers a chat and a text-for-help service. Text START to 678678 to start getting help.
  • Fenway Health (not suicide specific)
  • LGBTQ+ people can speak to trained volunteers about HIV/AIDS, coming out, safer sex, depression, suicide, harassment and violence. They can help connect callers with LGBT groups and services in your local area. LGBT Helpline (25+) 888-340-4528. Monday to Saturday, 6pm - 11pm / Peer Listening Line (25 & Under) 800-399-PEER. Monday to Saturday 5pm – 10pm.

Military and Veterans

Active-duty military and veterans have a higher risk of mental health disorders than civilians do.

In a study by Robert J. Ursano and colleagues, researchers found that the rate of major depression among soldiers was five times higher than the rate among civilians.

According to the U.S. Department of Veterans affairs:
  • 1 in 3 veterans has some symptoms
  • 1 in 5 veterans has serious symptoms
  • 1 in 8 to 10 has major depression requiring treatment

Veterans and military personnel dealing with depression can get help from their local VA hospital or visit the VA’s website.

Veterans in crisis can call the Veterans Crisis Line at 1-800-273-8255 and press 1, text to 838255, or chat online at

How to Deal with Depression

Most health care providers use a combination of therapies to treat depression. These include talk therapy, medications and lifestyle changes. The good news is that depression is highly treatable, and almost all patients find relief.

Because there is no one-size-fits-all treatment, some patients must go through a trial and error process with different medications and dosages or try different therapists. But according to the American Psychiatric Association, 80 to 90 percent of people eventually respond well to treatment.

Talk Therapy or Psychotherapy

There are several different types of psychotherapy. These include cognitive behavior therapy and intrapersonal therapy.

In research and clinical practice, cognitive behavior therapy, or CBT, has proven effective in treating depression and is endorsed by the American Psychiatric Association and American Psychological Association. The theory behind this type of therapy is that depression is based in part on unhelpful behaviors or thinking. A CBT therapist helps a patient learn better ways of coping with these behaviors and thoughts.

Interpersonal therapy, or IPT, has also been shown to be effective in major depressive disorders and is also endorsed by the American Psychiatric Association and American Psychological Association. IBT focuses on interpersonal issues and helps a patient learn to communicate better with others to address things that contribute to depression.

Tips for Finding a Therapist
  • Find a therapist that specializes in depression
  • Check the therapist’s background and credentials
  • Ask your therapist what their plan of treatment is and what happens if you don’t get better
  • Find a few therapists you like and have a preliminary conversation with them to make sure you are comfortable with them

You can read more about different types of therapists and find one on the National Alliance on Mental Illness website.

Medications for Depression

There are several different types of medications to treat depression. Each drug class works differently and may have different risks and benefits. Medications can take between 2 to 4 weeks, or longer, to work.

It’s important not to stop taking a drug suddenly because you may suffer withdrawal side effects. If you want to stop taking your medication, work with your health care provider to slowly decrease the dose.

Make sure to ask your health care provider about side effects and tell them all medications, vitamins and herbal supplements you are taking.

Common Medications for Depression
Drug Class Name (generic)
Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRI) Celexa (citalopram), Lexapro (escitalopram), Paxil (paroxetine), Prozac (fluoxetine), Trintellix (vortioxetine), Viibryd (vilazodone), Zoloft (sertraline)
Serotonin and Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors (SNRI) Cymbalta (duloxetine), Effexor (venlafaxine), Fetzima (levomilnacipran), Pristiq (desvenlafaxine)
Tricyclic and Tetracyclic Antidepressants Ascendin (amoxapine), Elavil (amitriptyline), Ludiomil (maprotiline)
Atypical Antidepressants Desyrel (trazodone), Serzone (nefazodone), Wellbutrin (bupropion)
Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOIs) Emsam skin patch (selegiline), Parnate (tranylcypromine), Marplan (isocarboxzaid)

Natural Ways to Cope with Depression

Several lifestyle changes and activities can help cope with depression. These involve connecting with others and taking care of your body.

Tips for Dealing with Depression Naturally
Care for a pet
Caring for a pet can make you feel less isolated and take you out of your head.
Join a support group
Talking to others who can share their experience can help you feel less alone.
Keep up with social activities
Even if you don’t feel like being social, it’s important to connect with others. Being around others can help you feel less depressed.
Support others
Studies show volunteering and helping others gives us a sense of well-being and happiness.
Look for a good listener
It’s important to find someone who will listen without judgement and not try to “fix you.”
Manage stress
Identify things in life that stress you out and figure out how to take control of them or try deep breathing, meditation and yoga.
Get enough sleep
Any more or less than eight hours of sleep can trigger depression.
Get exercise
A study by Megan K. Edwards and Paul Loprinzi showed that a 10-minute bout of brisk walking and mediation improved mood.
Get better nutrition
Minimize sugar, eat more fruits and veggies and boost folate and omega-3 fatty acids. The American Psychiatric Association recommends folate and omega-3 fatty acids as adjunctive therapies for mood disorders.

Filing for Disability Benefits

Major depressive disorder is the number one cause of disability in United States. Some people who suffer from certain symptoms and limitations caused by depression can file for social security disability benefits.

In order to qualify, a person must have had depression for at least a year and be able to show that the symptoms prevent them from performing a job on a regular basis. The Social Security Administration will look at doctors’ notes, mental health evaluations, psychological testing and any other medical records.

Applicants must have at least five of these symptoms:
  • Slow physical movements and reactions
  • Lack of interest in activities
  • Depressed mood
  • Thinking or concentration difficulties
  • Feelings of guilt and worthlessness
  • Difficulty sleeping or oversleeping
  • Changes in weight caused by overeating or undereating
  • Suicidal thoughts or thoughts of death

Find out more about social security disability on the Social Security Administration website.

Please seek the advice of a medical professional before making health care decisions.

Michelle Llamas, Senior Content Writer
Written By Michelle Llamas Senior Writer

Michelle Llamas has been writing articles and producing podcasts about drugs, medical devices and the FDA for nearly a decade. She focuses on various medical conditions, health policy, COVID-19, LGBTQ health, mental health and women’s health issues. Michelle collaborates with experts, including board-certified doctors, patients and advocates, to provide trusted health information to the public. Some of her qualifications include:

  • Member of American Medical Writers Association (AMWA) and former Engage Committee and Membership Committee member
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Health Literacy certificates
  • Original works published or cited in The Lancet, British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and the Journal for Palliative Medicine
Edited By

39 Cited Research Articles writers follow rigorous sourcing guidelines and cite only trustworthy sources of information, including peer-reviewed journals, court records, academic organizations, highly regarded nonprofit organizations, government reports and interviews with qualified experts. Review our editorial policy to learn more about our process for producing accurate, current and balanced content.

  1. American Psychiatric Association. (2010). Practice Guideline for Treatment of Patients with Major Depressive Disorder. Retrieved from
  2. American Psychiatric Association. (n.d.). What Is Depression? Retrieved from
  3. American Psychological Association. (n.d.). What Is Cognitive Behavior Therapy? Retrieved form
  4. Anxiety and Depression Association of America. (n.d.). Facts & Statistics. Retrieved from
  5. Anxiety and Depression Association of America. (n.d.). Understanding Anxiety and Depression for LGBTQ People. Retrieved from
  6. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2018). Prevalence of Depression Among Adults Aged 20 and Over: United States, 2013–2016. Retrieved from
  7. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2018). Youth and Risk Behavior Survey Data Summary and Trends Report 2007 – 2017. Retrieved from
  8. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (n.d.). Diabetes and Mental Health. Retrieved form
  9. Cleveland Clinic. (n.d.). Persistent Depressive Disorder. Retrieved from
  10. Ducharme, J. (2018, June 5). Seasonal Depression Doesn't Just Happen in the Winter. Here's What to Know About Summertime Sadness. Retrieved from
  11. Edwards, M.K. & Loprinzi, P.D. (2018, July 7). Experimental effects of brief, single bouts of walking and meditation on mood profile in young adults. Retrieved from
  12. Epperson, C.N. et al. (2012). Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder: Evidence for a New Category for DSM-5. Retrieved from
  13. Harvard Health Publishing. (2018, June 9). Six common depression types. Retrieved from
  14. Laurence, B.K. (n.d.). Getting Social Security Disability Benefits for Depression or Bipolar Disorder. Retrieved from
  15. Lohman, R.C. (2019, April 22). What's Driving the Rise in Teen Depression? Retrieved from
  16. Markowitz, J.C. & Weissman, M.M. (2004). Interpersonal psychotherapy: principles and applications. Retrieved from
  17. Meyers, B.S. (2014, July 31). Psychotic Depression: Underrecognized, Undertreated — and Dangerous. Retrieved from
  18. National Alliance on Mental Health. (n.d.). Bipolar Disorder. Retrieved from
  19. National Alliance on Mental Illness. (n.d.). Depression. Retrieved from
  20. National Alliance on Mental Illness. (n.d.). Mental Health by the Numbers. Retrieved from
  21. National Alliance on Mental Illness. (n.d.). Types of Mental Health Professionals. Retrieved from
  22. National Institute of Mental Health. (n.d.). Depression. Retrieved from
  23. National Institute of Mental Health. (n.d.). Major Depression. Retrieved from
  24. National Institute of Mental Health. (n.d.). Psychotherapies. Retrieved from
  25. National Institutes of Mental Health. (n.d.). Bipolar Disorder. Retrieved from
  26. National Institutes of Mental Health. (n.d.). Seasonal Affective Disorder. Retrieved from
  27. National Institutes of Mental Health. (n.d.). U.S. YLDs Contributed by Mental and Behavioral Disorders. Retrieved from
  28. Nierenberg, C. (2016, October 27). 7 Ways Depression Differs in Men and Women. Retrieved form
  29. Schimelpfening, N. (2020, February 15). Causes and Risk Factors of Depression. Retrieved from
  30. Smith, M., Robinson, L. & Segal, J. (2019). Coping with Depression. Retrieved from
  31. Social Security Administration. (n.d.). Apply Online for Disability Benefits. Retrieved from
  32. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (2018). Key Substance Use and Mental Health Indicators in the United States: Results from the 2018 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. Retrieved from
  33. Twenge, J.M. et al. (2019). Age, Period, and Cohort Trends in Mood Disorder Indicators and SuicideRelated Outcomes in a Nationally Representative Dataset, 2005–2017. Retrieved from
  34. U.S, Department of Veterans Affairs. (n.d.). Mental Health. Retrieved form
  35. U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs. (n.d.). Depression. Retrieved from
  36. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (2019, November 19). Depression Medicines. Retrieved from
  37. U.S. National Library of Medicine. (n.d.). Major depression with psychotic features. Retrieved from
  38. Ursano, R.J. et al. (2014). The Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (Army STARRS). Retrieved from
  39. World Health Organization. (2020, January 30). Depression. Retrieved form
View All Sources
Who Am I Calling?

Calling this number connects you with a Drugwatch representative. We will direct you to one of our trusted legal partners for a free case review.

Drugwatch's sponsors support the organization's mission to keep people safe from dangerous drugs and medical devices. For more information, visit our sponsors page.

(888) 645-1617