ALERT: Your health is top priority. We’re committed to providing reliable COVID-19 resources to keep you informed and safe.

Juul and E-Cigarettes

E-cigarettes are devices that use batteries and a heating element to turn flavored liquids into a vapor that can be inhaled. Often marketed as a safer alternative to tobacco cigarettes, virtually all vaping liquids contain highly addictive nicotine. E-cigs, including Juul, have been linked to seizures and other serious side effects.

Electronic cigarettes are more popularly known as e-cigarettes, e-cigs or vape pens. They include vape pens, vaporizers, e-pens, e-pipes, e-hookahs and e-cigars, which are all classified as electronic nicotine delivery systems, or ENDS.

The most popular e-cigarette is Juul, but hundreds of different e-cigarette brands are currently available to consumers. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration gave all e-cigarette makers until Sept. 9, 2020, to submit an application for FDA approval if they want to continue selling their products in the United States.

Using e-cigs is referred to as vaping or juuling. E-cigarettes deliver a liquid to users as a vapor instead of a harsher smoke. The liquid contains a mixture of nicotine, propylene glycol, glycerin, and sometimes flavorings and other unknown ingredients.

Did You Know?
E-cigs were originally designed by a Beijing pharmacist Hon Lik in 2003, making the product a relatively new phenomenon. Lik was a heavy cigarette smoker. His father was also an avid smoker and died of lung cancer. Lik’s first e-cigarettes hit the U.S. and European markets in 2007.

Users have reported a growing list of potential e-cigarette side effects such as seizures, strokes, respiratory failure and bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia, or BOOP.

Among the most serious side effects is EVALI, which stands for e-cigarette, or vaping, product use associated lung injury. The condition causes severe lung damage that frequently requires patients to use a mechanical ventilator.

By early 2020, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention determined that vitamin E acetate was “strongly linked” to the EVALI outbreak. The chemical is sometimes used as a thickening agent in vape fluids containing THC – the psychoactive ingredient in marijuana.

The CDC received 2,807 reports of EVALI cases or deaths as of Feb. 18, 2020. According to data from Jan 2020, of the 2,022 hospitalized EVALI patients, about 82 percent had vaped THC, the active ingredient in marijuana. But 14 percent had vaped nicotine products exclusively.

The lung injury outbreak has been followed by a wave of states and cities ordering e-cigarette bans in their jurisdictions.

What Is Juul?

Juul is the most popular e-cigarette marketed in the United States. The brand accounts for about 75 percent of all e-cigs sold. It is one of just five brands that control about 97 percent of the e-cigarette market. The other four are Vuse, MarkTen, Blu and Logic.

The trendy e-cigs appeal to young adults and teens who often don’t realize Juul products are e-cigarettes or contain nicotine. Public health researchers have found teens using the term “juuling” instead of “vaping” to distinguish Juul from other e-cigs even though the two activities are the same.

JUUL E-cigs and pods
JUUL accounts for about 75 percent of all e-cigs sold.
Source: Wikimedia Commons

When Juul first hit the market in 2015, its vape liquid contained much higher levels of nicotine than e-cigs that had already been on the market. Each Juul pod contains as much nicotine as 20 regular cigarettes, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Juul’s sleek design and addictive nicotine are credited for the device’s widespread popularity with teens and young adults, as well as Juul’s rapid dominance of the e-cigarette market.

Juul Timeline
  • 2004
    Stanford University grad students James Monsees and Adam Bowen come up with the idea for Ploom, a company to manufacture tobacco vaporizers.
  • 2007
    Bowen and Monsees raise $900,000 to found Ploom as a tech startup in San Francisco.
  • 2015
    After rebranding as Pax Labs, the company launches Juul.
  • 2016
    Juul sales increase 700 percent in one year.
  • 2017
    Pax Labs spins off Juul Labs as an independent company.
  • April 2018
    The FDA begins a crackdown on Juul and other e-cigs to reduce youth vaping, while launching an investigation into the company.
  • Oct. 2018
    Juul becomes the biggest selling e-cigarette in the U.S., controlling more than 70 percent of the e-cig market.
  • Dec. 18, 2018
    The U.S. Surgeon General declares that America is facing an “epidemic of e-cigarette use” among teens and young adults.
  • Dec. 20, 2018
    Big Tobacco giant Altria, maker of Marlboro cigarettes, buys a 35 percent share of Juul.
  • April 3, 2019
    The FDA announces it is investigating what will become more than 125 cases of seizures apparently linked to vaping.
  • July 25, 2019
    Wisconsin health officials announce eight cases of severe lung injury related to vaping.
  • Sept. 9, 2019
    FDA issues a warning letter to Juul Labs for its marketing practices.
  • Sept. 25, 2019
    Juul CEO Kevin Burns resigns after apologizing for the nation’s teen vaping epidemic.
  • Oct. 2, 2019
    A federal judicial panel transfers Juul lawsuits filed across the United States to a court in San Francisco.
  • Oct. 15, 2019
    The first wrongful death lawsuit against Juul is filed by the family of an 18-year-old who died after being hospitalized for a severe lung condition.
  • Oct. 29, 2019
    The CDC reports 1,888 confirmed or suspected cases of e-cigarette, or vaping, product use associated lung injury in 49 states, the District of Columbia and the U.S. Virgin Islands. At least 37 people in 24 states have died from the lung injuries.

In September 2019, the Wall Street Journal reported that the FDA had opened a criminal investigation into Juul Labs to determine whether the company used deceptive advertising and targeted minors.

Juul CEO Kevin Burns resigned in September 2019 after apologizing for the teen vaping epidemic in the United States.

In October 2019, a total of 40 e-cigarette lawsuits filed against Juul Labs were combined in a mass litigation in a San Francisco federal court. The lawsuits claim the company marketed nicotine products to minors and Juul devices led to serious health problems. Lawyers expect people to file more Juul lawsuits in the litigation as time passes.

Lawsuit Information
Lawsuits claim nicotine in Juul and other e-cigarettes caused seizures and other complications. Learn more about currently pending litigation.
View Lawsuits

Who Uses Juul and Other E-Cigarettes?

Young people are more likely than adults to use Juul or other e-cigarettes in the United States, according to the CDC.

The health protection agency reports that 2.8 percent of American adults used e-cigarettes in 2017. Among adult e-cig users, 58.8 percent also continued to smoke tobacco cigarettes while 29.8 percent were former tobacco smokers. Another 11.4 percent of e-cig users had never been regular tobacco smokers.

A 2018 report from Truth Initiative, an anti-smoking group, found that 15- to 17-year-olds were 16 times more likely to have used a Juul e-cig than older age groups. The report also found more than half of Juul users were younger than 18 the first time they tried the device.

Teen Use of Juul and Other E-Cigarettes

Teen use of e-cigarettes has increased rapidly since the introduction of Juul in 2015. In 2018, the U.S. Surgeon General declared an “epidemic of youth e-cigarette use.” He pointed to surges in the number of teens using e-cigs and the dangers of nicotine to brain development in young people.

“We’re at risk of dealing with nicotine addiction, several health concerns and potential lung diseases that we hadn’t really seen previously or at this rate from a particular product,” Dr. Joshua Mansour, a Los Angeles-based oncologist, told Drugwatch.

The U.S. Surgeon General’s Office reports that about 20 percent of high school students used an e-cigarette in 2018.

Student Vaping Statistics
  • About 3.62 million middle and high school students used e-cigarettes in 2018.
  • From 2017 to 2018, e-cig use increased 78 percent among high school students and 48 percent among middle school students.
  • In 2018, 20.8 percent of high school students and 4.9 percent of middle schoolers reported having used an e-cigarette.

Source: U.S. Food and Drug Administration

Early results from a national survey of teen tobacco and e-cig use show vaping among teens continued to rise well into 2019. The National Institute on Drug Abuse found 1 in 4 high school seniors had vaped nicotine products within the last month. For 10th graders, the rate was 1 in 5, and for 8th graders, it was 1 in 11.

FDA Bans E-Cig Flavors

In November 2018, the FDA announced restrictions on the sale of flavored e-cigarette vape fluids.

Flavored vape fluids have been criticized as a marketing ploy to lure teens and young adults to vaping. Federal regulators have targeted flavored vape liquids to rein in underage sales and use.

The agency said it would ban all e-cigarette flavors except tobacco, mint and menthol in retail stores. Fruity or sweet e-cig flavors can now only be purchased through age-restricted stores or online merchants that can verify a buyer’s age.

“These electronic cigarettes are also marketed for their flavors that are more appealing than the musty, odorous tobacco cigarettes have been and are targeted to a different generation,” Mansour said.

In August 2019, the FDA notified four companies to remove 44 flavored e-cigarette fluids and hookah tobaccos from sale in the United States. The agency crackdown underlined the FDA’s muscle-flexing on its authority to require FDA approval for new flavored products.

Juul  announced in October 2019 that it would eliminate all fruity flavors for sale in the United States. The company had already suspended sales of most of its flavored pods in stores in November 2018, but continued to sell them online.

Vaping vs. Smoking

Vaping may be safer than smoking for adults past their mid-20s who already smoke. But e-cigarettes are not safe for nonsmokers, teens, young adults or pregnant women, according to the CDC.

In September 2019, the FDA ordered Juul to stop advertising use of its products as safer than smoking. The agency sent a warning letter to Juul Labs, saying the company had illegally marketed its products as safer than tobacco.

The FDA said the company marketed its products as “modified risk tobacco products” without FDA clearance. The agency stressed that there was no scientific proof that Juul products posed less risk or were less harmful than tobacco products.

“[B]efore marketing tobacco products for reduced risk, companies must demonstrate with scientific evidence that their specific product does in fact pose less risk or is less harmful,” the FDA said in a statement.

Research is mixed on whether vaping is safer than smoking, and e-cigs like Juul are so new that not a lot of research has been done.

“There has been this facade that, ‘Oh, e-cigarettes are not as bad for you,’” Mansour said. “From time and experience, we have much more information and data regarding the several dangers of traditional cigarettes including, but not limited to cancer, COPD, emphysema, and heart disease.  However, we don’t fully know the risks from e-cigarettes.”

Can Vaping Help People Quit Smoking?

The FDA has never approved an e-cigarette as a smoking cessation device. Studies into whether the devices help people quit smoking have yielded mixed results.

In 2008, just after e-cigarettes showed up in the U.S. and Europe, the World Health Organization urged marketers to remove claims that e-cigarettes are a safe and effective way to quit smoking because no scientific evidence was available to support those claims.

A 2019 study in the journal Addiction estimated that vaping may have helped as many as 70,000 smokers in the United Kingdom kick the habit. But the authors warned that cultural differences may prevent the results from being repeated elsewhere.

A French study from the same year found similar results, but also it found that e-cig use among smokers increased the risk of relapse into tobacco use.

Did You Know?
The FDA has not approved any e-cigarette as a smoking cessation aid, and there is no conclusive scientific evidence that e-cigs can help people stop smoking permanently.
Source: National Institute on Drug Abuse

In the United States, marketing e-cigs to teens may have helped hook more young people on nicotine and tobacco.

A 2015 study in the Journal of the American Medical Association found that teens who took up vaping were three times more likely to start smoking within six months compared to teens who didn’t vape. A Yale University study in 2018 found the switch from vaping to tobacco cigarettes could happen in as little as one month.

“We won’t fully understand the range of vaping’s harmful effects for some time to come,” Mansour said. “But just like tobacco and cigarettes in the past, it took several decades for us to really understand what the full harmful effects of those products were.”

How Do E-Cigarettes Work?

E-cigarettes come in a wide variety of shapes, sizes and designs, but they all work in pretty much the same way. They each have a mouthpiece, a battery, a heating element and a container for the vaping fluid, which is sometimes part of the mouthpiece.

E-Cigarette Cartridge


Holds the liquid mixture with varying dosages of nicotine, flavorings and chemicals

E-Cigarette Heating Device

Heating Device

To convert the liquid to a vapor (vaporizer)

E-Cigarette Power Source

Power Source

Usually a battery

When the user puffs on the e-cigarette’s mouthpiece, the battery-operated heating element activates. The heating element vaporizes the e-liquid stored in the cartridge and releases an aerosol or vapor, which the user inhales.

How Much Nicotine Is in Juul and Other E-Cigarettes?

Virtually all e-liquids used in Juul and other e-cigarettes contain nicotine. The exact level of nicotine varies by brand.

For example, some Juul pods contain more nicotine than many other e-cigarettes.

According to Cleveland Clinic, one type of Juul pod contains 0.7mL (or 59 mg/mL) of nicotine per pod, which is approximately equivalent to 200 puffs of a cigarette. That’s about one pack of cigarettes worth of nicotine in one pod. Juul’s maker has claimed that it delivers nicotine up to 2.7 times faster than other e-cigarettes, according to Truth Initiative.

Labeling isn’t a reliable way to find out how much nicotine is in an e-cigarette because studies have found many products are mislabeled, according to Truth Initiative.

In October 2019, US Rep. Raja Krishnamoorthi announced a new bill that would put a cap on the amount of nicotine in e-cigarettes to 20 mg/mL, CNN reported. This cap is already in place in Europe.

Currently, there is no limit on the amount of nicotine in e-cigarettes in the United States.

Lawsuit Information
People filing e-cigarette lawsuits claim they were unaware that vape fluids contained high levels of nicotine, a highly addictive substance.
View Lawsuits

Explosion Recalls

Some brands of e-cigarettes have been known to overheat and possibly explode, resulting in burns and other severe injuries for e-cig users. The malfunction is likely due to the use of lithium-ion batteries to power the e-cigarettes.

Incidents of e-cigarette explosions have been reported to the U.S. Fire Administration dating back to 2009, just two years following the release of e-cigs into the U.S. market.

U.S. Fire Administration Findings on E-Cigarette Fires & Explosions
  • 195 incidents of explosions and fires involving e-cigarettes were reported by U.S. media between January 2009 and December 2016.
  • These incidents resulted in 133 acute injuries.
  • 38 injuries were considered severe.
  • 121 fire and explosion incidents happened while the device was in a pocket or in use.
  • The shape and construction of e-cigarettes can make them more likely than other products containing lithium-ion batteries to act as “flaming rockets” as a result of battery failures.

Source: U.S. Fire Administration

The FDA has offered some recommendations to help e-cigarette users avoid potential battery malfunctions and explosions.

Vape Safety Infographic
Source: U.S. Food and Drug Administration

Common Questions About E-Cigarettes

What are the side effects of Juul and other e-cigarettes?
Common side effects of using Juul and other e-cigarettes include coughing, dizziness and dry mouth. Serious vaping side effects may include severe lung injuries, seizures, and nicotine addiction and poisoning.

Have e-cigarettes been banned?
After the e-cigarette lung injury outbreak, certain states and cities made the decision to ban or restrict Juul and other vaping products. Although there is no nationwide e-cigarette ban, the FDA announced a ban on almost all flavored vaping cartridges and pods on Jan 2, 2020.

Is it hard to quit vaping?
Quitting vaping can be difficult because you’re managing nicotine withdrawal. Setting a routine and following through on it can help you control your vape cravings.

Juul E-Cigarette
Juul and E-Cigarette Facts
  1. Uses Tobacco substitute, electronic nicotine delivery system
  2. Side Effects Nicotine addiction, seizures, lung diseases, respiratory failure, stroke, death
  3. Manufacturers Juul Labs, Altria-Philip Morris, British American Tobacco, Imperial Brands

Please seek the advice of a medical professional before making health care decisions.

Terry Turner
Written By Terry Turner Writer

Terry Turner has been writing articles and producing news broadcasts for more than 25 years. He covers FDA policy, proton pump inhibitors, and medical devices such as hernia mesh, IVC filters, and hip and knee implants. An Emmy-winning journalist, he has reported on health and medical policy issues before Congress, the FDA and other federal agencies. Some of his qualifications include:

  • American Medical Writers Association (AMWA) and The Alliance of Professional Health Advocates member
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Health Literacy certificates
  • Original works published or cited in Washington Examiner, MedPage Today and The New York Times
  • Appeared as an expert panelist on hernia mesh lawsuits on the BBC
Edited By
Medically Reviewed By
Dr. Joshua Mansour, MD
Joshua Mansour, M.D. Hematologist/Oncologist

58 Cited Research Articles writers follow rigorous sourcing guidelines and cite only trustworthy sources of information, including peer-reviewed journals, court records, academic organizations, highly regarded nonprofit organizations, government reports and interviews with qualified experts. Review our editorial policy to learn more about our process for producing accurate, current and balanced content.

  1. Allen, J.G. et al. (2016). Flavoring Chemicals in E-Cigarettes: Diacetyl, 2,3-Pentanedione, and Acetoin in a Sample of 51 Products, Including Fruit-, Candy-, and Cocktail-Flavored E-Cigarettes. Retrieved from
  2. American Association of Poison Control Centers. (2019, July 31). E-Cigarettes and Liquid Nicotine. Retrieved from
  3. American Lung Association. (2016.) E-Cigarettes and Lung Health. Retrieved from
  4. Bai, D. (2018, November 2). Flavorants and Propylene Glycol From E-Cigarettes Form Harmful Irritants When Combined. American Journal of Managed Care. Retrieved from
  5. Beard, E., West, R., Michie, S. and Brown, J. (2019, October 16). Association of Prevalence of Electronic Cigarette Use With Smoking Cessation and Cigarette Consumption in England: A Time Series Analysis Between 2006 and 2017. Addiction. Retrieved from
  6. Bleiberg, J. (2015). The Canadian E-Cig Industry Is Wildly Unregulated. Retrieved from
  7. Cai, K. (2019, July 16). Juul and Rivals, Given 10 Months to Submit FDA Application, Face Battle to Keep Selling E-cigs. Forbes. Retrieved from
  8. CBS News. (2016). New York teen badly injured by exploding e-cigarette. Retrieved from
  9. CBS News. (2019, October 1). Juul Withdraws Support for Ballot Measure Aimed at Overturning Anti-Vaping Law in San Francisco. Retrieved from
  10. CBS News. (2019, September 12). Trump’s Crackdown on Flavored Vaping Products Unlikely to Take Effect Soon. Retrieved from
  11. Cleveland Clinic. (n.d.). What You Should Know About Juul. Retrieved from
  12. Cloupor. (2015). Cloupor mini Statement. Retrieved from
  13. Cook, L. (2019, October 1). Which States and Cities Have Vape Bans? Here’s What You Need to Know. AM New York. Retrieved from
  14. Corum, J. (2019, October 24). Vaping Illness Tracker: 1,604 Cases and 34 Deaths.Vaping Lung Illnesses: Tracking the Outbreak. The New York Times. Retrieved from
  15. Edney, A. (2019, April 29). Teens Say They Don’t Vape, They ‘Juul.’ That Makes the Activity Hard to Track. Bloomberg/Los Angeles Times. Retrieved from
  16. Erythropel, H.C. et al. (2018, October 18). Formation of Flavorant—Propylene Glycol Adducts with Novel Toxicological Properties in Chemically Unstable E-Cigarette Liquids. Nicotine & Tobacco Research. Retrieved from
  17. Goldenson, N.I. et al. (2017, October 23). Associations of Electronic Cigarette Nicotine Concentration With Subsequent Cigarette Smoking and Vaping Levels in Adolescents. JAMA Pediatrics. Retrieved from
  18. Gomajee, R. et al. (2019, July 15). Association Between Electronic Cigarette Use and Smoking Reduction in France. JAMA Internal Medicine. Retrieved from
  19. Hopper, L. (2019). E-Cig Use Jumps 46.2% Among Young Adults in One Year. University of Southern California News Release. Retrieved from
  20. Juul Labs. (2019, September 30). Statement Regarding San Francisco Ballot Initiative. News Release. Retrieved from
  21. Kamboj, A. et al. (2016). Pediatric Exposure to E-Cigarettes, Nicotine, and Tobacco Products in the United States. Retrieved from
  22. Kaplan, S. and Hoffman, J. (2018, November 13). Juul Suspends Selling Most E-Cigarette Flavors in Stores. The New York Times. Retrieved from
  23. Kaplan, S. and Richtel, M. (2019, September 9). Juul Illegally Marketed E-Cigarettes, FDA Says. The New York Times. Retrieved from
  24. Kirkham, C. (2018, November 18). FDA to Ban Flavored E-Cigarettes at U.S. Convenience Stores. Reuters. Retrieved from
  25. Korioth, T. (2015). Liquid Nicotine Used in E-Cigarettes Can Kill Children. Retrieved from
  26. LaMotte, S. (2016). E-cigarette poisonings in kids skyrocket, study finds. Retrieved from
  27. LaMotte, S. and Scutti, S. (2017). Where we stand now: E-cigarettes. Retrieved from
  28. Linning, S. (2015). BBC engineer who loved his job becomes ‘Britain’s first’ e-cigarette suicide after drinking liquid nicotine and bingeing on cider. Retrieved from
  29. Loria, K. (2019, July 16). New Restrictions on E-Cigarettes: What You Should Know. Consumer Reports. Retrieved from
  30. Lovelace, B. (2019, September 23). Federal Prosecutors in California Reportedly Open Criminal Probe of Vaping Company Juul. CNBC. Retrieved from
  31. McKenna, L.A. (2017, July). Electronic Cigarette Fires and Explosions in the United States 2009 – 2016. U.S. Fire Administration. Retrieved from
  32. National Institute on Drug Abuse. (2016). Electronic Cigarettes (e-Cigarettes). Retrieved from
  33. National Institute on Drug Abuse. (2016). Teens and E-cigarettes. Retrieved from
  34. National Institutes of Health. (2014). Identification of toxicants in cinnamon-flavored electronic cigarette refill fluids. Retrieved from
  35. Nedelman, M. (2019, October 7). New bill aims to cap nicotine levels in e-cigarettes. Retrieved from
  36. New England Journal of Medicine. (2015). Hidden Formaldehyde in E-Cigarette Aerosols. Retrieved from
  37. Office of the Surgeon General. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2016). E-Cigarette Use Among Youth and Young Adults. Retrieved from
  38. Perrone, M. (2019, September 24). U.S. Official Expects “’Hundreds More’” Cases of Vaping Illness. Associated Press. Retrieved from
  39. Richtel, M. (2014, March 23). Selling a Poison by the Barrel: Liquid Nicotine for E-Cigarettes. Retrieved from
  40. Richtel, M. and Grady, D. (2019, September 6). Cases of Vaping-Related Lung Illness Surge, Health Officials Say. The New York Times. Retrieved from§ion=Health
  41. Schoenborn, M.P.H. et al. (2015). Electronic Cigarette Use Among Adults: United States, 2014. Retrieved from
  42. Sharma, N. (2014). E-Cigarette Poisoning on the Rise, CDC Says. Retrieved from
  43. Sun, L. H. (2019, September 19). Vaping-Related Illnesses Surge as FDA Disclosed Criminal Probe. The Washington Post. Retrieved from
  44. Truth Initiative. (2019, November 11). E-cigarettes: Facts, stats and regulations. Retrieved from
  45. Truth Initiative. (2018, October 30). New Study Reveals Teens 16 Times More Likely to Use Juul Than Older Age Groups. Retrieved from
  46. Truth Initiative. (n.d.). How much nicotine is in Juul? Retrieved from
  47. U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019). Electronic Cigarettes; Outbreak of Lung Disease Associated with E-Cigarette Use, or Vaping, Products. Retrieved from
  48. U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019, March 11). Quick Facts on the Risks of E-Cigarettes for Kids, Teens, and Young Adults. Retrieved from
  49. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (2020, August 25). Premarket Tobacco Product Applications. Retrieved from
  50. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (2016, May 5). FDA takes significant steps to protect Americans from dangers of tobacco through new regulation. Retrieved from
  51. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (2018, March 20). Vaporizers, E-Cigarettes, and other Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems (ENDS). Retrieved from
  52. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (2018, November 15). Statement from FDA Commissioner Scott Gottlieb, M.D., on Proposed New Steps to Protect Youth by Preventing Access to Flavored Tobacco Products and Banning Menthol in Cigarettes. Retrieved from
  53. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (2019, August 8). FDA Notifies Four Companies to Remove 44 Flavored E-Liquid and Hookah Tobacco Products from the Market for Not Having Required Marketing Authorization. Retrieved from
  54. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (2019, June 19). Vaporizers, E-Cigarettes, and Other Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems (ENDS). Retrieved from
  55. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (2019, September 9). FDA Warns Juul Labs for Marketing Unauthorized Modified Risk Tobacco Products, Including in Outreach to Youth. Retrieved from
  56. U.S. Judicial Panel on Multidistrict Litigation. (2019, October 2). Transfer Order; In re: Juul Labs, Inc., Marketing, Sales Practices, and Products Liability Litigation. MDL No. 2913. Retrieved from
  57. U.S. Surgeon General. (2018). Surgeon General’s Advisory on E-Cigarette Use Among Youth. Retrieved from
  58. Vuong, Z. (2017, October 23). Teens Who Vape Higher Doses of Nicotine Are More Likely to Become Regular Smokers. USC News. Retrieved from
View All Sources
Who Am I Calling?

Calling this number connects you with a Drugwatch representative. We will direct you to one of our trusted legal partners for a free case review.

Drugwatch's trusted legal partners support the organization's mission to keep people safe from dangerous drugs and medical devices. For more information, visit our partners page.

(888) 680-4166