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E-Cigarette Side Effects

E-cigarettes sky rocketed to fame as a purported safer alternative to traditional cigarette smoking. But studies have revealed that e-cigarettes, and the e-liquid used in the device to “vape,” are associated with serious side effects and complications, some of which can be deadly, including nicotine poisoning, a serious lung disease called popcorn lung, certain cancers, such as myeloid leukemia, and chemical burn wounds resulting from faulty batteries.

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration began regulating e-cigarettes in mid-2016. Before that, little, if anything, was done to establish guidelines regarding sales, marketing and manufacturing of the popular devices and its e-liquid device counterparts.

Therefore, little was known about its potential dangers, including a faulty design that contributed to lithium-ion battery explosions.

But over time, investigations have found that e-cigarettes are linked to several serious side effects and health complications that extend beyond injuries incurred from exploding batteries and traditional nicotine exposure. Researchers found that users of e-cigarettes are actually being exposed to an assortment of chemicals, including formaldehyde, with the possibility of causing irreversible harm, even cancer.

People who have suffered serious side effects or injuries from vaping have filed e-cigarette lawsuits.

The U.S. Surgeon General also concluded that e-cigarette users were being exposed to potentially harmful chemicals, including:

nicotine icon


carbonyl icon

Carbonyl compounds

ecig volatile

Volatile organic compounds

Additionally, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention released data showing that e-liquid poisonings are “rapidly increasing.”

One chemical in various flavored e-liquids, diacetyl, was found to cause lung damage that can become so severe, users may need a lung transplant to avoid life-threatening consequences.

Example of E-liquid nicotine

Nicotine Poisoning

Nicotine can be toxic to humans when consumed in large, concentrated amounts, such as those sometimes found in e-liquid cartridges. Liquid nicotine used in e-cigarettes is absorbed far more quickly compared to nicotine from tobacco in traditional cigarettes. While most e-liquids are sold with concentrations at 2 percent, others can go as high as 10 percent.

Nicotine Concentrates
E-liquid nicotine concentrations can be as high as 10 percent

Accidental ingestion of e-liquids can result in poisoning, quickly affecting the cardiovascular, circulatory, gastrointestinal and nervous systems.

Symptoms of Nicotine Poisoning

Nicotine poisoning is the result of too much nicotine in the body. A person’s response to the overdose can vary based on the person’s age, weight and overall health condition. Other considerations for nicotine poisoning involve the strength and combination of the ingredients ingested, whether the nicotine was swallowed or inhaled and the amount of the product in a person’s body.

Nausea and vomiting are the most common symptoms of nicotine poisoning, but some cases can be life-threatening.

Other signs and symptoms of nicotine poisoning include:
  • Abdominal cramps
  • Depression
  • Burning sensation in the mouth
  • Drooling, or increased saliva
  • Fainting or coma
  • Convulsions (seizures)
  • Headache
  • Muscle twitching
  • Vomiting
  • Weakness
  • Breathing that may be difficult, rapid or stopped
  • Agitation, restlessness, excitement or confusion
  • Palpitations (a heartbeat that is fast and pounding and often followed by a slow heart rate)

Treatment of Nicotine Poisoning

A person’s outlook after nicotine poisoning typically depends on the amount of nicotine or nicotine-containing substance ingested, and how quickly treatment is received. While nicotine overdose can cause seizures and death, the faster a person gets medical help, the better their chances are for recovery. In the absence of complications, nicotine overdose rarely has long-term effects, but this does not diminish a person’s need for immediate medical attention.

Treatment depends on a patient’s symptoms, but might include:
  • Activated charcoal
  • Airway support, including oxygen, breathing tube threaded through the mouth or breathing machine
  • Blood and urine tests
  • Chest X-ray
  • EKG, to record the heart’s electrical activity
  • Fluids administered through a vein (IV)
  • Laxative, a medicine taken to increase bowel movements
  • Medicines to treat symptoms, including agitation, rapid heart rate, seizures and nausea

Formaldehyde and Cancer Risk

Formaldehyde is a known cancer-causing agent that can be formed during the vaping process, according to an analysis published by the New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) in 2015. The analysis examined many samples of propylene glycol and glycerol, two base substances present in e-liquids. Results showed that when these substances are heated in the presence of oxygen to temperatures reached by e-cigarettes at high voltages, more than 2 percent of the mixture is converted to formaldehyde-releasing agents.

What Is Formaldehyde?

Formaldehyde is a colorless chemical that has a strong smell. It is a flammable substance that is found naturally occurring in the environment. It is produced in small amounts by most living organisms as a part of the normal metabolic process as well.

The potentially dangerous chemical is often used in the production of many household cleaners. It is also commonly used as an industrial fungicide, germicide and disinfectant, and as a preservative in mortuaries and medical laboratories.

Many building materials are produced using formaldehyde as well, including:
  • Pressed-wood products, such as particleboard, plywood and fiberboard
  • Glues and adhesives
  • Permanent-press fabrics
  • Paper product coatings
  • Certain insulation materials

Formaldehyde Risks

Formaldehyde exposure primarily occurs by inhaling the substance as a gas or a vapor in the air. Additionally, exposure can occur by absorbing liquids containing formaldehyde through the skin. Formaldehyde is normally present in both indoor and outdoor air at low levels, according to a 1997 report by the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission. This presence is usually less than 0.03 parts of formaldehyde per million parts of air (ppm).

The most significant household or indoor sources of formaldehyde include pressed-wood products, cigarette smoke and the use of unvented fuel-burning appliances, such as gas stoves, wood-burning stoves and kerosene heaters. One source of outdoor exposure can include automobile emissions.

Symptoms of Formaldehyde Exposure

When individuals are exposed to levels of formaldehyde exceeding 0.1 ppm, they may experience adverse reactions associated with the increased exposure to the potentially harmful chemical.

Symptoms of formaldehyde exposure might include:
  • Watery eyes
  • Burning sensations in the eyes, nose and throat
  • Coughing
  • Wheezing
  • Nausea
  • Skin irritation

Sensitivity to formaldehyde exposure can vary from one person to the next, with some having more severe reactions to the exposure while others experience no symptoms at all with the same amount of exposure to the substance.

Types of Cancers Caused by Formaldehyde

Formaldehyde is classified as a group 1 carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, meaning long-term exposure to the chemical through vaping may lead to cancer.

Clinical studies conducted in 1980 showed that formaldehyde exposure could lead to nasal cancer in lab rats. And since the chemical’s classification as a “probable human carcinogen” under conditions of unusually high or prolonged exposure by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 1987, studies using human subjects have suggested that formaldehyde exposure is associated with certain types of cancer in humans as well.

In 2011, formaldehyde was named as a “known human carcinogen” by the National Toxicology Program, which is an interagency program of the Department of Health and Human Services.

Various studies conducted by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) since the 1980s have linked formaldehyde exposure to different types of cancer including:

Brain cancer

Brain cancer originates in the tissues of the brain (primary) or starts somewhere else in the body and spreads to the brain (metastatic). When brain tumors are malignant, meaning cancerous, the cancer cells typically grow quickly. Treatment options often involve a combination of therapies including: Surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy and targeted therapy, which uses substances to attack cancer cells without causing harm to healthy cells.

brain tumor x-ray
Symptoms of a brain tumor can include:
  • Headache
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Changes in ability to talk, hear or see
  • Problems with balance or walking
  • Feeling weak or sleepy
  • Problems with thinking or memory
  • Changes in mood or behavior
  • Seizures


The types of leukemia experienced by individuals exposed to formaldehyde generally include myeloid leukemia, as well as cancers of the hematopoietic and lymphatic systems.

Leukemia is cancer of the white blood cells, which are used to help the body fight infection. Myeloid leukemia is the most common type of leukemia in adults, sometimes caused by smoking. This type of cancer usually gets worse quickly if it is not treated right away.

Symptoms of myeloid cancer include:
  • Fever
  • Shortness of breath
  • Easy bruising or bleeding
  • Bleeding under the skin
  • Weakness or feeling tired
  • Weight loss or loss of appetite

Nasopharyngeal cancer

Nasopharyngeal cancer is a cancer that starts in the nasopharynx, or the upper part of the throat located behind the nose and near the base of the skull.

The approximate five-year survival rate for patients diagnosed with this type of cancer in its earliest stage (stage I) is about 72 percent. Once the cancer has progressed to its final stage (stage IV), only about 38 percent of patients will still be alive in five years after treatment.

The majority of individuals with this type of cancer (3 out of 4) will be bothered by a lump or mass in the neck. These lumps are typically painless, but may be the result of enlarged lymph nodes due to the cancer spreading to the nearby glands.

Other symptoms of the cancer might include:
  • Recurring ear infections
  • Nasal blockage or stuffiness
  • Nosebleeds
  • Headache
  • Facial pain or numbness
  • Trouble opening the mouth
  • Blurred or double vision
  • Hearing loss, ringing in the ear or feeling of fullness in the ear (especially if only experienced on one side)

Popcorn Lung

Harvard University researchers found that flavored e-cigarettes may carry unknown long-term risks. The researchers tested 51 types of flavored e-cigs and cartridges for three chemical substances called diacetyl, 2,3-pentanedione and acetoin. These flavoring agents are used in the manufacture of many flavored foods, but are also known to cause a serious lung disease called bronchiolitis obliterans (or “popcorn lung”) when heated, vaporized and subsequently inhaled.

What Is Popcorn Lung?

Popcorn lung is a rare condition that causes damage to the lung’s smallest airways, called bronchioles. The condition starts with inflammation and eventually leads to scarring of lung tissues and narrowing of the airways, causing irreversible lung damage and resulting breathing problems.

The nickname “popcorn lung” was established following a case of eight former workers of a microwave popcorn-processing plant who became ill with the disease in May 2000. The chemical responsible for the serious condition, diacetyl, was once commonly used to flavor food products, such as popcorn, caramel and certain dairy products, giving these foods their buttery taste.

Popcorn lung is also known as obliterative bronchiolitis, bronchiolitis obliterans or constrictive bronchiolitis.

Symptoms of Popcorn Lung

Symptoms of the serious lung condition may be mild at first and therefore, easily overlooked. Popcorn lung can also be mistaken for other lung diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which shares a lot of the same symptoms, like coughing, wheezing and shortness of breath. People with other conditions affecting the lungs, especially chronic conditions like asthma, may not be able to distinguish new symptoms of popcorn lung from existing long-term symptoms.

When symptoms do present, they typically develop about two to eight weeks after exposure. These symptoms will gradually progress slowly over weeks to months.

The most common signs and symptoms of popcorn lung include:
  • Wheezing in the absence of a cold, asthma or other health condition, such as bronchitis, that may cause wheezing
  • Dry cough
  • Shortness of breath or difficulty breathing deeply (this symptom is often exaggerated with physical activity)
  • Unexplained fatigue (exhaustion not associated with lack of sleep or other illness)
  • Rapid breathing
  • Persistent skin, eye, mouth or nose irritation if caused by exposure to certain chemicals, such as diacetyl in e-cigarette vapor

Treatment of Popcorn Lung

There is no cure for bronchiolitis obliterans (popcorn lung), and lung tissue scarring associated with the condition is irreversible. However, treatment can help stabilize the condition and slow its progression. Treatment options can vary based on the severity of the condition and its underlying cause. In the most severe cases, a lung transplant may be needed.

woman coughing
Medicines that can be prescribed to alleviate symptoms include:
  • Macrolide antibiotics to treat respiratory infections
  • Corticosteroids to lessen inflammation
  • Immunosuppressive drugs to reduce immune system activity and limit inflammation
  • Cough suppressants to stop coughing

Supplemental oxygen may also be used to manage symptoms of popcorn lung such as difficulty breathing.

Exploding E-Cigarette Batteries

In 2016, the New England Journal of Medicine reported that the facility treated 15 patients from October 2015 to June 2016 for injuries resulting from e-cigarette explosions due to battery failure. Patients experienced injuries to their face, hands, thighs and groin, with explosions causing flame burns in 80 percent of those treated, chemical burns in 33 percent and blast injuries in 27 percent. Such injuries resulted in the following outcomes: Tooth loss, soft tissue loss, surgical procedures, skin grafting, wound closures and exposure to chemicals.

Please seek the advice of a medical professional before making health care decisions.

Related Pages

Kristin Compton's background is in legal studies. She worked as a paralegal before joining Drugwatch as a writer and researcher. She was also a member of the National Association of Legal Assistants. A mother and longtime patient, she has firsthand experience of the harmful effects prescription drugs can have on women and their children. Some of her qualifications include:

  • Bachelor of Arts in Legal Studies | Pre-Law from University of West Florida
  • Past employment with The Health Law Firm and Kerrigan, Estess, Rankin, McLeod & Thompson LLC
  • Personal experience battling severe food allergies, asthma and high-risk pregnancies
Edited By
Medically Reviewed By
Dr. John A. Daller
Dr. John A. Daller American Board of Surgery

11 Cited Research Articles

  1. Allen, J., et al. (2016, June). Flavoring Chemicals in E-Cigarettes: Diacetyl, 2,3-Pentanedione, and Acetoin in a Sample of 51 Products, Including Fruit-, Candy-, and Cocktail-Flavored E-Cigarettes. Retrieved from
  2. American Cancer Society. (2016, August 8). What Is Nasopharyngeal Cancer? Retrieved from
  3. American Lung Association. (2016, July 7). Popcorn Lung: A Dangerous Risk of Flavored E-Cigarettes. Retrieved from
  4. American Lung Association. (2016, December 8). E-cigarettes and Lung Health. Retrieved from
  5. GARD. NIH. (2016, November 1). Bronchiolitis obliterans. Retrieved from
  6. Huizen, J. (2017, July 7). Popcorn lung: Causes, symptoms, and treatment. Retrieved from
  7. Jensen, R.P., et al. (2015, January 22). Hidden Formaldehyde in E-Cigarette Aerosols. Retrieved from
  8. MedlinePlus. NIH. (2016, May 20). Acute Myeloid Leukemia. Retrieved from
  9. MedlinePlus. NIH. (2016, October 27). Brain Tumors. Retrieved from
  10. MedlinePlus. NIH. (2017, January 31). Nicotine poisoning. Retrieved from
  11. National Cancer Institute (NCI). (2011, June 10). Formaldehyde and Cancer Risk. Retrieved from
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