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Nicotine Addiction

Nicotine addiction, or dependence, happens when a person needs nicotine and can’t stop using tobacco products. The chemical produces pleasurable effects, but when an addicted person tries to stop, it causes withdrawal symptoms. Treatment includes medication, nicotine replacement and counseling.

Nicotine is one of the most addictive substances. Studies show that nicotine is as addictive as cocaine and heroin, according to the University of California San Francisco.

About 40 million American adults smoke traditional cigarettes and about 4.7 million middle and high school students use e-cigarettes or another tobacco product, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Most of these smokers want to stop smoking. Each year, about half of them try to quit, but only about six percent are able to quit in a given year, according to the National Institute on Drug Abuse. It can take many tries to stop permanently.

Part of the reason Americans can’t stop smoking is the addictiveness of nicotine. But with the help of counseling and medical intervention, smokers can stop using tobacco products for good.

Symptoms

Everyone is different and the symptoms of nicotine addiction vary from person to person. But even people who consider themselves “light smokers” or “social smokers” who only smoke a few cigarettes a day can become addicted, according to SmokeFree.gov.

Symptoms and signs of nicotine addiction include:
  • Continuing to use tobacco or smoke even with health conditions such as heart problems or lung problems.
  • Cravings for tobacco products.
  • Feeling anxious or irritable if you want to use tobacco but can’t.
  • Giving up social activities with situations where you can’t smoke or use tobacco.
  • Mood-related and physical symptoms (withdrawal symptoms) when you try to stop, including insomnia, increased appetite, difficulty concentrating, anger, frustration, depression, anxiety, diarrhea or constipation.
  • You go out of your way to get a tobacco fix.
  • You have to use tobacco within minutes of waking up.
  • You’ve tried to stop using tobacco multiple times but can’t.

How Nicotine Causes Addiction

Nicotine causes addiction by causing chemical changes in the brain. Using nicotine-containing products, including smoking cigarettes or vaping, causes the release of a chemical in the brain called dopamine.

Dopamine trains people to act a certain way by reinforcing certain behaviors. It does this by rewarding a person with a pleasurable sensation. This is called reinforcement. Each time a person takes a puff on a cigarette or vapes, they get a dopamine hit. This causes them to use nicotine-containing products over and over.

It doesn’t take much to trigger this response. In fact, just one 15-minute exposure to nicotine caused long-term excitability in neurons responsible for reward, according to a study by University of Chicago Medical Center researcher Danyan Mao and colleagues. Study authors also found that nicotine and cocaine similarly affect dopamine.

Nicotine causes a temporary boost in memory and attention that may cause people to keep using it to focus. But these feelings only last a short time. Long-term smoking actually leads to an increased risk of Alzheimer’s disease and cognitive decline.

When a person doesn’t smoke, they suffer withdrawal symptoms. These begin a few hours after a person has their last cigarette. The unpleasant physical and mental symptoms force a person to use tobacco again.

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Behaviors that Trigger the Need to Smoke

Nicotine hits become so ingrained in a person’s life that certain behaviors trigger the desire to smoke, according to Mayo Clinic.

Addiction triggers include:
  • Being on the phone
  • Being with friends
  • Consuming alcohol
  • Drinking coffee
  • Driving
  • Partying
  • Social situations
  • Taking work breaks

Risk Factors for Addiction

Certain people are more susceptible to developing nicotine addiction. For example, people who begin smoking when they are young have a greater chance of becoming addicted.

Susceptibility to nicotine addiction can also be inherited. Genetics influence how a person responds to high doses of nicotine. People with parents and friends who smoke are more likely to try smoking.

Those who abuse illegal drugs or alcohol or have mental illness are more likely to smoke.

How Bad Is Addiction?

Nicotine addiction is dangerous because it increases the risk that a person can be a lifelong tobacco user. Young people are especially susceptible to nicotine addiction because their brains are still developing. Nicotine can rewire the brain to become addicted to other drugs.

Cigarettes are especially dangerous because they contain thousands of harmful chemicals. These chemicals can harm every organ in the body and many increase cancer risk.

Some studies claim e-cigarettes are more addictive, while others say they are less addictive. But e-cigarettes have the ability to deliver nicotine faster and in greater amounts to the brain. For example, high voltage e-cigarettes can heat the vape juice at higher temperatures, causing a greater hit of nicotine.

Nicotine addiction leads to more tobacco use, which can cause more health problems.

Complications of smoking include:
  • Cancer
  • Diabetes
  • Eye problems
  • Greater susceptibility to respiratory illnesses such as flu, bronchitis or colds
  • Gum infections and disease
  • Heart problems
  • Impotence
  • Infertility
  • Lung disease
  • Pregnancy complications

Treatment

It can take a long time to get rid of a nicotine addiction, and it may take several tries for a person to finally quit for good. Stopping nicotine addiction requires a lot of support. Most addiction treatments are geared toward smokers, but many strategies for smoking can help with quitting vaping, too.

Light smokers who smoke a few cigarettes a week may be able to quit with counseling. But for more severe addiction, successful treatment plans typically involve a combination of medications, nicotine replacement therapy and behavioral counseling.

Talk to your healthcare provider about your options — they may vary depending on the type of nicotine you are addicted to.

Help Quitting
SmokeFree.gov, The American Lung Association and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s 1-800-QUIT-NOW helpline are all free addiction support tools.

Medications

Severely dependent people may require a prescription medication to help them quit. These can be used with nicotine replacement therapy. Chantix and bupropion are the most popular.

Chantix (Varenicline)

Chantix works by inhibiting nicotine receptors in the brain. It lessens withdrawal symptoms and the pleasure a person gets from nicotine hits.

Zyban, Wellbutrin or Aplenzin (Bupropion)

Bupropion is an extended-release antidepressant that helps reduce withdrawal symptoms and cravings. It works by acting on chemicals related to nicotine. Don’t take this drug if you have had seizures, cirrhosis, heavy alcohol use, a serious head injury, bipolar illness or an eating disorder.

Nicotine Replacement Therapy (NRT)

Nicotine replacement therapy or NRT gives a person a small amount of nicotine to manage withdrawal symptoms. Research shows NRT is safe and effective when used as a part of a treatment plan.

Types of NRT
Type Over the Counter or Prescription How They’re Used
Gum OTC Chew until your mouth tingles and then place between gums and cheek
Inhaler Prescription Inhale specific amount of nicotine through a mouthpiece
Lozenge OTC Acts like a hard candy and releases nicotine as it dissolves in the mouth
Nasal Spray Prescription Put in nose and spray
Patch OTC Small steady amount of nicotine delivered through the skin
Source: SmokeFree.gov

Please seek the advice of a medical professional before making health care decisions.

Michelle Llamas, Senior Content Writer
Written By Michelle Llamas Senior Writer

Michelle Llamas has been writing articles and producing podcasts about drugs, medical devices and the FDA for seven years. She specializes in fluoroquinolone antibiotics and products that affect women’s health such as Essure birth control, transvaginal mesh and talcum powder. Michelle collaborates with experts, including board-certified doctors, patients and advocates, to provide trusted health information to the public. Some of her qualifications include:

  • American Medical Writers Association (AMWA) Engage Committee and Membership Committee member
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Health Literacy certificates
  • Original works published or cited in The Lancet, British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and the Journal for Palliative Medicine
Edited By

12 Cited Research Articles

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