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Polypropylene Mesh

Polypropylene mesh is the most common type of synthetic hernia mesh. It is made from one of the most widely-used plastics on the market. Polypropylene mesh may reduce the chances of a hernia returning. But recent research suggests long-term complications may off-set its advantages.

Most hernia mesh surgeries in the U.S. rely on polypropylene mesh. It is a durable yet flexible synthetic surgical mesh.

Polypropylene mesh comes in either woven or non-woven sheets. And polypropylene mesh can be cut or shaped for specific types of hernia repairs.

Manufacturers may coat or combine polypropylene mesh with other materials creating a composite surgical mesh.

Polypropylene mesh is associated with several serious hernia mesh complications. Thousands of people have filed hernia mesh lawsuits over problems they experienced after receiving polypropylene mesh.

What Is Polypropylene?

Polypropylene is the second most widely manufactured type of plastic in the world – behind polyethylene. It is used in a wide range of products ranging from furniture and carpeting to electronic components and medical devices.

Hernia mesh manufacturers use polypropylene in part because it is an inert plastic. That means it is chemically inactive and should minimize patient complications. But some researchers suggest its properties may change after it is implanted.

Polypropylene characteristics include durability and strength. Polypropylene’s tensile strength — or ability to resist breaking under tension — is comparable to steel. These are all selling points for polypropylene’s success as a hernia mesh.

Polypropylene Mesh for Hernia Repair

Polypropylene mesh is a synthetic surgical mesh used for hernia and other soft tissue repairs. It works as a scaffold.

Surgeons stitch torn tissue to the mesh to close a hernia. This leaves less tension on the damaged tissue.

The first modern hernia mesh repair in 1958 used polypropylene mesh. Later, minimally invasive techniques popularized its use in hernia surgery.

Polypropylene is a versatile and inexpensive plastic. Polypropylene costs less than most other synthetic fibers. Some polypropylene hernia mesh may cost as little $25 to manufacture, but makers may sell it for $2,000.

What Types of Mesh Are Used to Repair a Hernia?

Microscopic image of polypropylene mesh.
Polypropylene mesh is used for most hernia repairs.

Polypropylene mesh is the most widely-used type of mesh for hernia repair. Other leading mesh materials include polyester and ePTFE — a fluorocarbon polymer best known by the brand name Teflon.

Manufacturers may combine these materials with others including titanium. Or they may coat meshes in materials to promote absorption or to prevent infection.

Polypropylene has several features that make it one of the most popular materials for hernia mesh. It is thin and lightweight.

Polypropylene allows manufacturers to create mesh with large pores and minimal surface area. But all hernia mesh materials come with unique advantages and disadvantages.

Advantages & Disadvantages of Polypropylene Hernia Mesh
Advantages Disadvantages
Durability Lack of flexibility
Low infection risk High adhesion risk
Comfortable for patient Can shrink, allowing recurrence

Polypropylene Hernia Mesh Coatings

Manufacturers may sometimes coat polypropylene mesh with additional materials. This creates what the industry calls a composite mesh.

The coatings may contain materials designed to help the body adapt to mesh. Or they may provide medicines to prevent infection.

Notable coated versions of polypropylene hernia mesh include Ethicon’s Physiomesh and Atrium’s C-QUR.


Physiomesh Flexible Composite Hernia Mesh consisted of a polypropylene mesh base between two absorbable films. Ethicon removed this model of Physiomesh from the market after European hernia registries reported a higher than expected complication rate.


C-QUR Mesh combines polypropylene mesh with an Omega 3 gel coating. The company’s website says the coating is “derived from highly purified pharmaceutical grade fish oil.”

Lawsuit Information
Polypropylene-based hernia meshes have been the subject of thousands of lawsuits over various complications associated with the devices. Read more about these cases.
View Lawsuits

Polypropylene Mesh Complications

Bowel obstructions and perforations are among the most serious polypropylene hernia mesh complications. These can sometimes be medical emergencies and require immediate surgery.

Polypropylene mesh also shares several complications with other types of hernia mesh. The FDA says the most serious hernia mesh complications are associated with mesh brands that are no longer on the market or were the subject of hernia mesh recalls.

Dr. Robert Bendavid describes the most common problems with polypropylene mesh.
Most Common Hernia Mesh Complications
  • Pain
  • Infection
  • Hernia recurrence
  • Adhesion
  • Bowel obstruction
  • Migration
  • Shrinkage

Polypropylene Hernia Mesh and Chronic Pain

Chronic pain is the most common complication of hernia mesh surgery. But it is still unclear how common it is.

Study results of polypropylene hernia mesh and chronic pain.
Studies: British Journal of Surgery and Postgraduate Medicine

Chronic pain is defined as pain lasting a year or more following surgery.

A presentation at the 2018 International Hernia Congress looked at chronic pain occurring much later after surgery. Researchers found 95 percent of such chronic pain cases may not happen until 10 years after surgery. In one case, the pain occurred 24 years after surgery.

Polypropylene Mesh and Infection Risk

Polypropylene mesh is associated with fewer infections than other types of hernia mesh. But infection remains one of the most common complications of hernia mesh surgery.

Infection may occur weeks, months or even years after surgery. A 2015 study in the Indian Journal of Surgery compared early and late infection onset. The study, “Early- Versus Late-Onset Prosthetic Mesh Infection: More that Time Alone,” looked at outcomes for about 100 patients.

Researchers found that infection involving polypropylene mesh was more likely to happen more than a year after surgery. Most cases involved other complications. These included the mesh or surrounding scar tissue adhering to internal organs or blocking the bowel.

Polypropylene Mesh and Hernia Mesh Rejection

Polypropylene is not generally toxic to humans. However, patients may experience hypersensitivity issues or other reactions to polypropylene mesh. This can sometimes lead to mesh rejection or other complications.

Polypropylene Mesh Degradation

A 2012 letter published in The Journal of Urology warned of potential problems with polypropylene degradation in the body. The letter was titled “Post-Implantation Alterations of Poly Propylene in the Human.” Its three authors pointed to case studies of polypropylene mesh shrinking or of other physical changes after it was implanted.

They warned that some of the chemicals used to manufacture polypropylene mesh may “behave as toxic substances” as the mesh degrades.

Dr. Robert Bendavid explains why there are so many problems with poylpropylene.

Polypropylene Mesh and the FDA

At least 120 surgical mesh products can trace their approval ancestry back to Ethicon’s Prolene Polypropylene Mesh. This was a surgical mesh on the market before the U.S. Food and Drug Administration regulated medical devices.

All new polypropylene surgical meshes in the U.S. are approved through the FDA’s 510(k) process. That method only requires a device manufacturer show a “substantial equivalence” to a medical device the FDA already approved.

A 2018 research article in the Journal PLOS One looked at the 510(k) process. It was titled “The Regulatory Ancestral Network of Surgical Meshes.” The study found that mesh manufacturers often compare new products to meshes that were recalled or associated with serious complications.

“[R]ecalled meshes associated with adverse effects may, indirectly, continue to serve as predicates for new devices raising concerns over the safety of the 510(k) route.”

Source: PLOS One, June 19, 2018

Researchers looked at 77 new meshes approved between 2013 and 2015. They then traced the “regulatory ancestry” of the devices.

Companies compared their new meshes to older devices that in turn had been compared to even older meshes all to show “substantial equivalence.”

Researchers found, 97 percent of the new designs could trace their lineage back to just six surgical meshes. All were available prior to 1976 when the FDA started regulating hernia mesh.

Polypropylene Transvaginal Mesh

Polypropylene is also used to make other surgical meshes – including transvaginal mesh. In May 2018, CBS’s “60 Minutes” program reported on problems with Boston Scientific’s polypropylene transvaginal mesh.

Chevron Phillips made a polypropylene material it called Marlex. Boston Scientific used it to make transvaginal mesh. Chevron warned Boston Scientific that Marlex should never be permanently implanted in the body.

“I can’t in my wildest imagination imagine anybody that’s knowledgeable in the science of plastics ever deciding that it was appropriate to use polypropylene in the human body. It’s well known that it’s oxidatively unstable.”

Source: Plastics engineer Duane Priddy to 60 Minutes.

Boston Scientific continued to use Marlex. Changing to another type of polypropylene would require getting another FDA approval.

The CBS report claimed Boston Scientific found another Marlex supplier in China. But the supply turned out to be substandard, according to “60 Minutes.”

Tens of thousands of women have complained of serious complications from transvaginal mesh. More than 100,000 have filed transvaginal mesh lawsuits.

Polypropylene Hernia Mesh Lawsuits

Patients have filed thousands of hernia mesh lawsuits over complications they suffered after receiving mesh hernia repairs. Many of the cases have been combined into multidistrict litigations (MDLs). MDLs allow several similar cases to move more quickly through the legal process.

There are currently three hernia mesh MDLs. Each one involves a different hernia mesh manufacturer. All involve polypropylene-based hernia meshes.

Hernia Mesh Multidistrict Litigations
C-QUR Hernia Mesh Lawsuits
These lawsuits claim Atrium’s C-QUR caused serious complications after hernia repair. In 2016, the U.S. Judicial Panel on Multidistrict Litigation (JPML) combined C-QUR hernia mesh lawsuits in a New Hampshire federal court.
Physiomesh Lawsuits
These lawsuits claim Ethicon’s Physiomesh Flexible Composite hernia mesh caused serious complications that required revision surgery. In 2017, the panel combined Physiomesh hernia mesh lawsuits into an MDL in a Georgia federal court.
Bard Davol
The Bard Davol MDL is open to virtually all hernia mesh products the company makes. This includes a variety of polypropylene and composite meshes. The JPML combined Bard Davol hernia mesh lawsuits into an MDL in an Ohio federal court.

Please seek the advice of a medical professional before making health care decisions.

Terry Turner
Written By Terry Turner Writer

Terry Turner has been writing articles and producing news broadcasts for more than 25 years. He covers FDA policy, proton pump inhibitors, and medical devices such as hernia mesh, IVC filters, and hip and knee implants. An Emmy-winning journalist, he has reported on health and medical policy issues before Congress, the FDA and other federal agencies. Some of his qualifications include:

  • American Medical Writers Association (AMWA) and The Alliance of Professional Health Advocates member
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Health Literacy certificates
  • Original works published or cited in Washington Examiner, MedPage Today and The New York Times
  • Appeared as an expert panelist on hernia mesh lawsuits on the BBC
Edited By
Emily Miller
Emily Miller Managing Editor

22 Cited Research Articles writers follow rigorous sourcing guidelines and cite only trustworthy sources of information, including peer-reviewed journals, court records, academic organizations, highly regarded nonprofit organizations, government reports and interviews with qualified experts. Review our editorial policy to learn more about our process for producing accurate, current and balanced content.

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  9. Falagas, M.E. and Kasiakou, S.K. (2004, November 29). Mesh-Related Infections After Hernia Repair Surgery. Clinical Microbiology and Infection. Retrieved from
  10. Broughton, C. (2018, January 14). Risks from Surgical Mesh in Hernia Repair Too High, Canadian Surgeon Says. Stuff New Zealand. Retrieved from
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  12. Creative Mechanisms. (2016, May 4). Everything You Need to Know About Polypropylene (PP) Plastic. Retrieved from
  13. Kokotovic, D., Bisgaard, T., and Helgstrand, F. (2016, October 18). Long-Term Recurrence and Complications Associated with Elective Incisional Hernia Repair. JAMA. Retrieved from
  14. Nikkolo, C. & Lepner, U. (2015, December 4). Chronic Pain After Open Inguinal Hernia Repair. Postgraduate Medicine. Retrieved from
  15. Lundstrom, K.J., et al. (2017, November 15). Patient-Reported Rates of Chronic Pain and Recurrence After Groin Hernia Repair. BJS. Retrieved from
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  17. Bilsel, Y. and Abci, I. (2012, May 12). The search for Ideal Hernia Repair; Mesh Materials and Types. International Journal of Surgery. Retrieved from
  18. Densford, F. (2018, May 14). UPDATE: 60 Minutes Report Claims Unapproved Plastic Sources Used in Boston Scientific Pelvic Meshes. MassDevice. Retrieved from
  19. Ceresana. (2017, August). Polypropylene Market Report. Retrieved from
  20. Kong, W., et al. (2015, March 6). Early- Versus Late-Onset Prosthetic Mesh Infection: More than Time Alone. Indian Journal of Surgery. Retrieved from
  21. Medline. (n.d.). Physiomesh Flexible Composite Mesh by Ethicon. Retrieved from
  22. Atrium; Maquet Getinge Group. (n.d.). C-QUR Mesh. Retrieved from
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