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Women’s Health

Women’s health involves a variety of gender-specific issues, like estrogen production, mental health topics and sexual health and fertility concerns. Women go through dramatic mental and physical changes as their reproductive systems go through major changes. Women can take charge of their health by eating a proper diet, seeking the proper screenings and maintaining a healthy lifestyle.

Page Contents:

    Facts about Women's Health

    Women’s bodies go through major changes throughout their lives, leading to differences in health concerns for varying age groups. During times of physiological change, women are more susceptible to mental health issues like depression, anxiety and eating disorders. In adulthood, sexual health issues like fertility, avoiding STDs and practicing safe birth control gain importance. After menopause, some women suffer from diseases and conditions caused by changes in hormone levels. Fortunately, most of the diseases that affect women are treatable if detected early, and women can live long and happy lives by following simple health tips.

    Quick Facts About Women's Health:
    • Major risks to women’s health include cardiovascular disease, cancer, osteoporosis and depression.
    • Women are more likely than men to suffer from stress and depression.
    • STDs, reproductive issues and birth control methods affect women’s sexual health.
    • Osteoarthritis, the leading cause of disability in the U.S., affects more women than men.
    • Women are more than twice as likely as men to suffer UTIs.
    • Women are often unaware of the dangerous side effects some drugs and medical devices have to their health.

    How Women Age

    Drugwatch's Karen Selby discusses Women's Health issues

    The reproductive cycle greatly affects the stages of a woman’s life. Estrogen levels directly affect many of the physical changes women experience during adolescence, adulthood and old age.

    At the moment of conception, girls immediately begin displaying physiological differences from boys. They express genes in the placenta differently, improving placenta development and pregnancy maintenance. Girls begin developing breasts while they are still in the womb, and they are born with the milk-duct system already in place.

    During childhood and adolescence, girls begin to develop identities through repeated conflicts and disappointments. As young as age six, girls begin developing concerns about their weight. Around the age of eight, the ovaries begin to produce estrogen causing the breasts and areolas to enlarge and buds to appear around the nipple. They also begin to grow pubic hair and hair under their arms.


    Menstruation usually begins between ages 12 and 13. About 10 percent of young women begin menstruating at age 11, and by age 14 almost 90 percent of young women have begun menstruating. Once menstruation begins, women’s breasts grow larger and glandular breast tissue (the tissue which makes milk) becomes present. The areola and nipple eventually rise above the rest of the breast.

    Many young women experience difficulty understanding their menstrual cycles or patterns. The irregularity of menstrual cycles during adolescence makes understanding patterns even more difficult. Concurrently, young women often feel confused and conflicted about the changes in their lives during their teenage years. Experts believe the emotional hardships young women face attribute to the increasing rates of pregnancy and abortion among teens.

    During menstruation, women may feel changes in the way their breasts feel as the glands enlarge to prepare for pregnancy. However, the breasts shrink to normal size when pregnancy fails to occur. Some doctors believe the breasts are not fully mature until a woman gives birth and produces milk for the first time.

    During a woman’s reproductive years – usually during her 20s to 40s – she often redevelops her identity as she balances family and personal relationships, caring for children and establishing a career. During this time, women are at a higher risk for uterine and ovarian diseases.

    Life after Menopause

    Menopause begins in the late 40s and early 50s in most women. It officially begins when a woman goes a full year without menstruating. During this time, estrogen and progesterone levels fluctuate. As estrogen levels decrease, many tissues in the body – including the breasts – lose hydration and elasticity.

    Around this time of life, children often leave home, elderly parents begin needing care and marriages often suffer from a partner’s medical issues or changing life goals. All of these factors lead to a high rate of depression and physical fatigue in many women.

    As life expectancy increased, the number of postmenopausal diseases also increased. Many women suffer from physical conditions like urinary incontinence, chronic migraines and breast cancer. Osteoporosis, hypercholesterolemia (high cholesterol) and atherosclerosis (plaque buildup in arteries) also begin affecting many women after menopause.

    In their elderly years, many women suffer emotionally from the loss of friends and family members. Their physical strength and memory weaken, and many women end up living in solitude in their remaining years, contributing to mental health issues. The risk of cardiac and cerebral vascular diseases also increases at old age.

    Common Diseases and Conditions

    Women suffer from many of the same conditions and diseases as men, but the diseases affect them differently and at different times. There are also many gender-specific diseases that only affect women.

    High blood pressure causes a variety of health problems. Women usually have a lower risk for high blood pressure than men until age 45, the sexes have about the same risk from 45-65 and women have a higher risk for high blood pressure after 65. Additionally, many women with normal blood pressure develop high blood pressure after menopause.

    Throughout their entire lives, women are at a higher risk for metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome causes high blood pressure, high glucose levels, abnormal lipid levels and increased waist size. Women who suffer from metabolic syndrome have a higher risk for heart attack and stroke.

    The autoimmune disease Lupus also affects more women than men. Those suffering from lupus die more often from cancer and infections than otherwise healthy people.

    Women are also more likely to suffer from urinary tract infections (UTI), especially in women older than 60. UTIs cause frequent urination and a burning feeling during urination. If untreated, it can spread to the kidneys, causing sepsis. Sepsis is the body’s response to infection which sometimes causes death.

    Cardiovascular Disease

    The top killer of women, cardiovascular disease, is responsible for one third of all female deaths every year. Women often overlook it because experts once thought it was a “man’s disease.” The results of cardiovascular disease include heart attacks, heart valve problems, strokes and arrhythmias (abnormal beating of the heart).

    Heart disease is a type of cardiovascular disease. Women are more likely to suffer from heart disease 10 years later in life than men, and about 42 percent of women who suffer a heart attack die within a year. Comparatively, only 24 percent of men die within a year of suffering a heart attack. Heart disease accounts for about 25 percent of all female deaths. An estimated 64 percent of women who die suddenly from heart disease never reported feeling symptoms.


    Cancer kills more than a quarter of a million women ever year in the U.S. The types of cancer that affect the most women include skin cancer, breast cancer, lung cancer and colorectal cancer.

    Breast cancer affects about 12 percent of American women, but the survival rate is high if it’s detected early. It is the second-highest cause of cancerous death among women, accounting for about 40,000 female deaths per year.

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancerous death among women in the U.S., accounting for about 70,000 deaths every year. It passed breast cancer as the leading cause of cancerous death in women in 1987. It is almost always caused by smoking cigarettes.

    Human-papilloma viruses (HPVs) cause a variety of cancers that can be harmful to women:
    • Cervical cancer: HPV causes almost every kind of cervical cancer in women.
    • Anal cancer: HPV causes about 95 percent of anal cancers in women.
    • Oropharyngeal cancers (cancers of the throat): HPV causes about 70 percent of all throat cancers in women.

    However, vaccines can often prevent the contraction of HPV.


    Millions of people suffer from osteoporosis, a disease that causes bones to weaken. It affects older women the most, causing their bones to break more easily. The hip, spine and wrist are most susceptible to fractures or breaks in those suffering from osteoporosis.

    Those with high risk factors for osteoporosis include:


    More women than men suffer from depression. It affects a woman’s ability to work, sleep, eat and feel happiness, leading more women to attempt to commit suicide every year than men.

    Factors that contribute to depression include genes, hormones and stress. When women’s hormones change, their brain chemistry also changes. Many women suffer from depression during puberty, after having a baby and during or after menopause.

    Women who feel sadness lasting more than two weeks should talk to a doctor or therapist. Therapy can often treat depression, and in some cases medications may help as well. However, many antidepressants carry serious side effects, and the benefits should be weighed against the risks.

    Eating Disorders

    Millions of men and women suffer from eating disorders, but women make up the vast majority of sufferers. Females make up an estimated 85 percent of the total number of people suffering from anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa.

    Eating disorders are mental and physical illnesses. Culture, family history, stress and genes contribute to the likelihood of suffering from an eating disorder.

    Anorexia Nervosa

    People suffering from anorexia have a fear of gaining weight. They rigorously limit the amount of food they eat. Anorexics often starve themselves to ease feelings of anxiety, anger and tension. They often feel they are overweight even if they have a lower than normal body weight.

    Bulimia nervosa

    People suffering from bulimia also fear gaining weight. However, they often eat in binges before attempting to purge their body of food by throwing up or taking laxatives. Bulimics often feel they can’t control their food intake. Unlike anorexics, they may have a normal body weight.

    People suffering from eating disorders feel severe side effects:
    • Mental health problems: feeling sad, moody or irritable. Memory suffers, and people are more likely to faint
    • Heart problems: lower blood pressure and slowing heart rate
    • Blood problems: anemia (lack of blood cells that carry oxygen)
    • Kidney problems: increased risk of kidney stones and kidney failure
    • Intestine problems: constipation, bloating
    • Hormonal problems: discontinuing menstruation, trouble getting pregnant, higher risk of miscarriage if pregnant and postpartum depression
    • Skin problems: bruising easily and drying or yellowing skin
    • Hair problems: thinning
    • Additional problems: weakened muscles, swollen joints, bone loss and fractures

    Sexual Health and Fertility

    Although society often depicts men as caring more about sex than women, many women think about sex from very young to very old ages. Sexual health refers to a state of wellbeing in which a woman can completely participate and enjoy sexual activity.

    Physical, psychological, social and interpersonal factors affect sexual health. Sexual organs, hormone-producing glands, the brain and the rest of the body make sex possible. But mental factors like experiences, expectations and emotions also contribute to sexual health.

    Sexually-transmitted Diseases

    Sexually-transmitted diseases (STDs) are one of the top concerns in women’s sexual health. Common STDs include HPV, HIV, syphilis, chlamydia, gonorrhea and genital herpes. Women can avoid many STDs by using latex condoms, knowing a partner’s history and receiving vaccinations.

    Some people with STDs feel healthy and do not realize they have are infected, causing concern for women thinking about getting pregnant. Pregnant women can pass STDs onto their baby.

    There are many treatments available for women who test positive for an STD. HIV treatment can help women live longer, healthier lives. Doctors can often cure gonorrhea or chlamydia if detected early


    Endometriosis occurs when the endometrium – tissue normally found inside the uterus – grows in other parts of the body. It can grow in the ovaries, outer surface of the uterus, fallopian tubes and bladder, causing severe pain.

    Endometriosis thickens, breaks down and bleeds during the menstrual cycle. Women suffering from endometriosis have painful periods, lower back pain, pain during sex and digestive problems. Half of women with the condition experience trouble getting pregnant.

    Doctors usually treat endometriosis with pain relievers, anti-inflammatory drugs, fertility treatments, surgery or hormonal drugs like birth control.

    Birth Control

    Almost every woman practices birth control at some point in life. More than 98 percent of women in the U.S. have used birth control, and an estimated 62 percent use it regularly.

    For most women, the primary purpose of birth control is to prevent pregnancy. However, some women use it to prevent the spread of STDs or to regulate hormones. Women should strongly consider all available birth control options and determine which is best for them.

    Popular birth control methods include hormonal methods, intrauterine devices (IUDs) and other barrier methods. Women should always consult a doctor to determine the best type of birth control for them.

    Things women should consider when choosing birth control methods include:
    • When they want have children, if at all.
    • Their overall health status.
    • How often they have sex.
    • How many sexual partners they have.
    • What their risk of obtaining STDs is.
    • What the effectiveness of the method is.
    • What side effects the method has.
    • The likelihood that they can properly use the method.

    Hormonal Methods

    The most widely known hormonal birth control method is the daily pill. Other hormonal methods include, patches, rings, shots hormonal IUDs and implants. Each method is different.

    Women must take pills every day, but hormonal IUDs can last up to five years. The “morning after pill” can be taken in emergency situations, like if a condom breaks or if a woman forgets to take her daily pill. Unlike other hormonal methods, the “morning after pill” does not require a prescription.

    All methods have side effects. Yaz and Yasmin birth control pills can cause extreme side effects like upper respiratory infections, itching, hives, high cholesterol, gall bladder disease, blood clots, heart attack and stroke.

    The hormonal device NuvaRing can increase a woman’s risk of heart attack, stroke and blood clots.

    Permanent Birth Control

    Women may elect to undergo a permanent form of birth control, also referred to as female sterilization, if they do not wish to never become pregnant. Female sterilization methods include tubal ligation (tube tying) and Essure birth control. The procedures are not reversible.

    Tubal ligation, or tying the tubes, requires surgery in which the fallopian tubes are closed. The procedure lasts about 30 minutes and usually requires anesthesia. During the operation, a surgeon will either block the tubes, burn them or clamp them shut. The procedure prevents pregnancy almost 100 percent of the time.

    The Essure Permanent Birth Control System involves inserting two coils made of Nickel titanium, stainless steel and polyethylene fibers in the fallopian tubes. The procedure usually takes about 10 minutes and does not require anesthesia. The coils expand inside the tubes, causing scar tissue to build around the coils. Bayer advertises the system as 99.83 percent effective.

    Essure birth control is not without risk, however. Thousands of women claim the coils perforated their fallopian tubes, causing severe pain, infections and long-term injuries. In some cases, deaths of women and fetuses were reported.

    Intrauterine devices (IUDs)

    IUDs are small, T-shaped devices made of plastic and either copper or hormones. Doctors or nurses put the device inside the uterus. They are one of the most effective forms of contraception, and they cannot be felt during sex if installed properly.

    Hormonal IUDs release small amounts of hormones for up to five years to prevent pregnancy. Copper IUDs release a small amount of copper to prevent fertilization for up to 10 years. In emergency situations, copper IUDs can be used to prevent pregnancy.

    IUDs also carry side effects. The Mirena IUD can migrate and perforate the uterus, enter the abdominal cavity, pelvis, bladder and blood vessels, and cause septic abortion, ectopic pregnancy and inflammatory disease.

    Natural Family Planning (NFP)

    Women use Natural Family Planning (NFP) when they do not want to get pregnant but other birth control methods are not an option. It is not as effective at preventing pregnancy as other forms of birth control, and women must have regular periods to use it.

    In NFP, women learn when they are most likely to get pregnant and avoid having sex on those days. Women trying to get pregnant can increase their chance of pregnancy by having sex on days in which they are more likely to conceive.

    Barrier Methods

    Barrier methods block sperm from reaching the egg. The most popular method is the male condom, worn over the penis during sex. Other methods include the female condom and the cervical cap. Male condoms are effective at preventing the transmission of HIV and some other STDs.


    Pregnancy occurs when a woman is carrying a fetus inside of her. It is divided into three trimesters and usually lasts about 40 weeks.

    Women who are pregnant should take steps to maintain a healthy pregnancy by ensuring proper prenatal care. High-risk pregnancies stem from existing conditions like high blood pressure, diabetes, HIV, unhealthy weight and young or old age. All women should avoid certain drugs that could harm them or their baby, or balance the risks of those drugs with the benefits.

    Common complications that occur during pregnancy include elevated blood pressure, gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, preterm labor and pregnancy loss. There are a variety of methods for delivering a baby and a number of topics women should be educated on after giving birth, like breast feeding.

    Health Tips

    Many conditions and diseases that affect women can be treated or prevented. Eating a healthy diet can reduce a woman’s risk of heart disease, Type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, some types of cancer and osteoporosis.

    Recommended Screenings for Women:
    • Ages 40-49 should ask their doctors about mammograms (breast cancer screenings).
    • Ages 70-54 should receive a mammogram every two years.
    • Ages 21-65 should receive a pap smear every three years.
    • Ages 21-65 should receive an HPV test every five years.
    • Ages 50-75 should be regularly screened for colorectal cancer.
    • Younger than 65 should be screened for HIV.
    • Born between 1945 and 1965 should be screened for Hepatitis C.
    • All women should be screened for diabetes if they have high blood pressure.
    • Lung Cancer: begin screening if they have a history of smoking tobacco.
    • Osteoporosis: begin screening at age 65.
    • STDs: screen if they are planning to get pregnant.
    • Depression: talk to their doctor or therapist if they feel sad, hopeless or little pleasure doing things for more than two weeks.

    Health Tips for Women:

    • Be physically active: this includes walking, gardening and dancing. Try to do 30 minutes of moderate physical activity during most days of the week.
    • Eat a healthy diet: eat a diet balanced in vegetables, fruit, lean meats, whole grains, low-fat dairy products and avoid foods high in cholesterol, trans fats, saturated fats, salt (sodium) and added sugars.
    • Stay hydrated: drinking plenty of fluids and emptying the bladder helps prevent UTIs.
    • Maintain a healthy weight: Balance calories consumed with calories burned.
    • Drink alcohol in moderation: Most women should not drink more than one drink per day.
    • Don’t smoke.
    • Take steps to avoid STDs: Get tested, know your partner’s history, use latex condoms and get vaccinated for hepatitis A and B and HPV.
    • Engage in mentally-stimulating activities: Intellectual activities help protect women older than 60 from some mental health diseases.
    • Ask your doctor about taking aspirin. Aspirin may help prevent a stroke for some women between the ages of 55 and 70.
    • Ask your doctor about taking folic acid supplements if you plan to get pregnant.
    • Ask your doctor about calcium and vitamin D supplements to help prevent osteoporosis.

    Drugs Dangerous to Women

    There are several drugs and medical devices that could pose a number of health risks to women. These include:


    Diflucan treats fungal and yeast infections, but it can cause birth defects like broad head, abnormal face or skullcap, cleft palate, bowing of thigh bones and thin ribs or long bones.


    Follistim is a fertility treatment, but it can cause ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, which causes fluid buildup that can lead to blood clots and death.


    Nolvadex is a hormone therapy for breast cancer, but it can cause blood clots, stroke and increased risk for contralateral (opposite) breast cancer, endometrial cancer and uterine cancer.


    The weight loss drug Qsymia can cause birth defects, increased risk of suicidal thoughts, eye problems and difficulty concentrating.


    Changes in the reproductive cycle cause dramatic changes in the lives of women, making them susceptible to gender-specific diseases and conditions. Women can take charge of their healthcare by being aware of the changes their bodies are going through and understanding their risks for diseases or conditions. With a healthy diet, exercise and proper screenings, women can live happily into old age.

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